HESI Case Studies Respiratory

Mr. Winston Winchell is a 70-year-old Black man. He has a history of emphysema and has been admitted to an inpatient medical unit with an acute respiratory infection. The nurse prepares to complete the client’s admission assessment after Mr. Winchell’s transfer from the emergency department (ED).

To ensure the client’s respiratory status is stable upon his arrival on the medical unit, the nurse should complete which assessment first?
A. Breath sounds
B. Oxygen Saturation
C. Level of Fatigue
D. Chest Excursion

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B. Oxygen Saturation
The initial assessment of Mr. Winchell continues. The nurse measure the client’s vital signs. Mr. Winchell’s respiratory rate is 32 breaths per minute.
What follow-up assessment data should the nurse obtain first?
A. Cigarette smoking history.
B. Use of accessory muscles
C. Cultural health beliefs
D. Color of sputum
B. Use of accessory muscles
The nurse applies oxygen at 2 liters per minute via nasal cannula and ensures that the client is comfortable. His oxygen saturation is stable at 95%, and his respiratory rate decreases to 24 breaths per minute. Mr. Winchell reports that he feels able to continue with the admission interview and assessment.

After answering a few questions, the client begins to cough. What assessment should the nurse perform?
A. Assess for the presence of nail bed clubbing
B. Review oral fluid intake for the last 24 hours
C. Observe for dryness of the oral mucosa
D. Note the amount and appearance of any sputum

D. Note the amount and appearance of any sputum
Mr. Winchell’s cough is non-productive.

After Mr. Winchell stops coughing, the nurse continues the interview. To assess the client’s history related to dyspnea on exertion (DOE), what question should the nurse ask Mr. Winchell?
A. “Do you become short of breath while lying flat?”
B. “What activities cause you to feel short of breath?”
C. “How frequently do you experience difficulty breathing?”
D “Are you having trouble catching your breath now?”

B. “What activities cause you to feel short of breath?”
The nurse asks Mr. Winchell about his history of cigarette smoking. Mr. Wichell tells the nurse that he smoked two packs of cigarettes per day for more than 40 years, but then he quit smoking 10 years ago. He then looks away and remarks that he is very fatigued from answering all the interview questions.

How should the nurse respond?
A. Continue the interview and assessment, avoid further questions related to cigarette smoking.
B. Restrict visitors so that the client can rest, and return later to complete the interview and assessment
C. Advise the client to rest in bed wile the nurse performs a physical assessment of the client
D. Document that the physical assessment could not be performed because of the client’s level of fatigue

C. Advise the client to rest in bed wile the nurse performs a physical assessment of the client
Wile Mr. Winchell rests, the nurse continues the physical assessment. The nurse observes the appearance of Mr. Winchell’s thorax and notes that the ratio of his anteroposterior and transverse chest diameters is 1:1.

How should this finding be documented?
A. Within normal limits
B. Funnel chest
C. Barrel chest
D. Thoracic scoliosis

C. Barrel chest
The nurse observes Mr. Winchell for outward signs of hypoxemia. The nurse notes that Mr. Winchell’s thoracic skin color is dark brown, consistent with his African-American ethnicity, and that his nail beds are pink.

What additional assessment will provide supporting data related to hypoxemia? (Select all that apply)
A. Color of palms and soles
B. Evidence of lower leg swelling
C. Presence and location of chest hair
D. Multiple thoracic hemangiomas
E. Shape of the fingers and fingertips

A. Color of palms and soles
E. Shape of the fingers and fingertips
The nurse reviews landmarks on the anterior chest and locates the Angle of Lois.

Locating the Angle of Louis is important to guide the nurse in next locating what area?
A. Xyphoid process
B. Erb’s point
C. Clavicle
D. Second Rib

D. Second Rib
Mr. Winchell asks to sit on the side of the bed. After assisting him to this position, the nurse continues the assessment, facing Mr. Winchell’s back and placing both hand on his posterolateral chest at the level of T9.

To assess chest excursion, what should the nurse do next?
A. Ask the client to inhale deeply
B. Encourage the client to cough
C. Tap lightly over the middle finger
D. Instruct the client to hold his breath

A. Ask the client to inhale deepl
The nurse observes symmetric chest excursion. What action should the nurse take?
A. Ask the client to cough before repeating assessment
B. Document the normal finding on the assessment record
C. Question the client about a recent history of rib fractures
D. Stop the assessment and measure the client’s vital signs
B. Document the normal finding on the assessment record
The nurse next plans to palpate for vocal fremitus.

Recalling the client’s admission diagnosis of emphysema and an acute pulmonary infection, what finding should the nurse anticipate?
A. Diminished fremitus over areas of infection
B. Increased fremitus over areas of consolidation
C. Absent fremitus over areas of hyperinflated alveoli
D. Inability to assess for fremitus due to fatigue

B. Increased fremitus over areas of consolidation
To begin the assessment for vocal fremitus, what should the nurse do?
A. Place one had over each scapula
B. Locate the posterior axillary line
C. Assist the client to lie back in the bed
D. Ask the client to repeat a phrase out loud
D. Ask the client to repeat a phrase out loud
Since Mr. Winchell is still comfortable sitting on the side of the bed leaning over a bedside table, the nurse next prepares to percuss Mr. Winchell’s thorax.

In order to percuss the client’s thorax posteriorly beginning at the apex of the right lung, how should the nurse begin?
A. Palpate the space directly below the clavicle
B. Place one finger pad over the first rib
C. Locate the client’s first intercostal space
D. Find the space directly above the diaphragm

C. Locate the client’s first intercostal space
The nurse percusses the client’s lungs bilaterally and notes dullness in the lung bases.

What follow-up action should the nurse implement?
A. Compare this finding with the location of the client’s pneumonia see on xray
B. Review the client’s medical history to determine how long he has had emphysema
C. Document this normal assessment finding in the client’s admission assessment
D. Notify the healthcare provider (HCP) that the client may have developed a pneumothorax

A. Compare this finding with the location of the client’s pneumonia see on xray
Mr. Winchell remains seated on the side of the bed. The nurse begins to auscultate his breath sounds posteriorly by placing the diaphragm of the stethoscope over his left apex.

After listening in this area, how should the nurse proceed?
A. Move the diaphragm across to the apex of the right lung posteriorly
B. Listen again at the same location using the bell of the stethoscope
C. Stand in front of the client and listen to the left lung apex anteriorly
D. Inch down the left side posteriorly to listen to the left middle lobe

A. Move the diaphragm across to the apex of the right lung posteriorly
The nurse hears vesicular breath sounds when auscultating over the upper and middle lung field posteriorly.

What action should the nurse take?
A. Encourage the client to cough and then auscultate these lung fields again
B. Stop the assessment immediately and administer a PRN dose of an inhaler
C. Continue the assessment after documenting the location of these abnormal sounds
D. Auscultate the lower lung fields to determine the presence of any adventitious sounds

D. Auscultate the lower lung fields to determine the presence of any adventitious sounds
The nurse hears crackle bilaterally in the posterior lung bases. After the nurse completes auscultation of the breath sounds posteriorly, Mr. Winchell states he is ready to swing his legs back on the bed and rest. The nurse assists the client to a Semi-Fowler’s position, ensuring that his oxygen remains in place.

What action should the nurse take?
A. Document the presence of wheezes in the upper lobes and complete the assessment
B. Immediately assist the client to lean forward to reduce is respiratory effort
C. Note the location of these bronchial breath sounds before completing the assessment
D. Wait to assess these heart sounds until the respirator assessment is complete.

A. Document the presence of wheezes in the upper lobes and complete the assessment
Although crackles could be heard bilaterally during the posterior auscultation of the lung bases, the nurse does not hear any adventitious sounds in the lung bases during anterior auscultation.

What action sold the nurse take?
A. Reassure the client tat his lung sounds are improving
B. Document that the lung bases are clear upon auscultation
C. Chart what was heard both anteriorly and posteriorly
D. Record only the location of the abnormal breath sounds

C. Chart what was heard both anteriorly and posteriorly
Since Mr. Winchell has a history of emphysema, the nurse recognizes that he may be at risk for altered nutrition: less than body requirements. To assess Mr. Winchell’s nutritional status, the nurse first notes the client’s height and weight that were obtained by the nurse in the emergency department.

Which assessment provides the most useful data related to the client’s current nutritional status?
A. Calculate the client’s BMI
B. Ask the client about any recent changes in his appetite
C. Assist the client to complete a 24-hour diet recall
d. Check the client’s serum hemoglobin A1c level

A. Calculate the client’s BMI
The nurse weighs Mr. Winchell, who is 132 lbs. The nurse records the weight in kilograms. How many kilograms does Mr. Winchell weigh?
60 kg
Using the client’s height and weight, the nurse calculates the client’s BMI to be 15, indicating that the client is underweight for his eight. Since this finding supports the nurse’s initial diagnosis of “Risk for altered nutrition: less than body requirement.” the nurse decides to gather more assessment data related to the client’s nutritional status.

To assess the client for signs of protein malnutrition, what action should the nurse take?
A. Compress the client’s nail beds
B. Observe the color of the conjunctiva
C. Note the texture of the client’s hair
D. measure the client’s deep tendon reflexes.

C. Note the texture of the client’s hair
Later that day, the UAP reports a change in Mr. Winchell’s vital signs, with an increase in temperature from 101 F to 103 F. The UAP reports the information to the nurse, who goes to the client’s room to assess the client. The nurse observes sputum in a tissue left at the bedside. The sputum is thick and purulent.

What assessment should the nurse perform?
A. Palpate for changes in vocal fremitus
B. Auscultate breath sounds bilaterally
C. Observe the thoracic diameter ratio
D. Percuss for diaphragmatic excerusion

B. Auscultate breath sounds bilaterally
During the assessment, the nurse also observes that Mr. Winchell is confused. During the admission interview and assessment, Mr. Winchell was oriented to person, place and time. The nurse auscultates Mr. Winchell’s breath sounds and hears an increase in crackles posteriorly, now in both the lower and middle lung fields.

Which data is most important for the nurse to obtain before contacting the HCP?
A. Pedal pulse volume
B. Orientation to situation
C. White blood cell count
D. respiratory effort

D. respiratory effort
The nurse documents the assessment finding and prepare to contact the client’s HCP.

When recording the change in the client’s assessment findings, how should the nurse document the breath sounds?
A. Adventitious breath sounds present in the middle and lower lungs bilaterally
B. Client’s posterior breath sounds have worsened from the earlier assessment
C. Crackles heard bilaterally in the middle and lower lung fields posteriorly
D. Bilateral normal breath sounds heard only in the upper lobes posteriorly

C. Crackles heard bilaterally in the middle and lower lung fields posteriorly
The nurse places a telephone call to Mr. Winchell’s HCP, an interest.

How should the nurse report the assessment data?
A. Provide the internist will full report of the initial assessment data obtained upon the client’s admission
B. Describe only the most current assessment data and the changes observed after the client’s temperature increased
C. Compare the current assessment of the client to the data obtained during the admission assessment of the client
D. Notify the internist that the client’s condition has changed, but avoid giving specific data until the internist assesses the client

C. Compare the current assessment of the client to the data obtained during the admission assessment of the client
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